National Toxicology Program cell phone radiation studies

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Tumor risk review papers

Myung et al (2009) Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: a meta-analysis. J Clinical Oncology.
Khurana et al (2009) Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including long-term epidemiologic data. Surgical Neurology.
Levis et al (2011) Mobile phones and head tumours: the discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epi studies-how do they arise. Environ Health.
Levis et al (2012) Mobile phones and head tumours: a critical analysis of case-control epi studies. Open Environ Sciences.
WHO (2013) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 102: Non-ionizing radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.
Morgan et al (2015) Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (Review). Int J Oncology.
Wang Y, Guo X (2016) Meta-analysis of association between mobile phone use and glioma risk. J Cancer Research Therapy
Bortkiewicz et al (2017) Mobile phone use and risk of intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors – A meta-analysis. Int J Occ Med Envir Health.
Prasad et al (2017) Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes. Neurol Sci.
Carlberg, Hardell (2017) Evaluation of mobile phone and cordless phone use and glioma risk using the Bradford Hill viewpoints from 1965 on association or causation. Biomed Res Int.
Miller, et al (2018). Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102). Environ Res.

Also see Long-Term Cell Phone Use Increases Brain Tumor Risk

Tumor risk studies

Interphone Study Group (2010) Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile phone use: results of the Interphone international case-control study. Int J Epidemiol.
Interphone Study Group (2011) Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol.
Aydin et al (2011) Mobile phone use & brain tumors in children & adolescents: a multi-center case-control study. (CEFALO Study). JNCI.
Hardell et al (2013) Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use. Int J Oncology.
Hardell et al (2013) Pooled analysis of case-control studies on acoustic neuroma diagnosed 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 and use of mobile and cordless phones. Int J Oncology.
Coureau et al (2014) Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study.
Grell et al (2016) The intracranial distribution of gliomas in relation to exposure from mobile phones: Analyses from the INTERPHONE Study. Am J Epidemiol.

Also see: Acoustic neuroma risk and cell phone use studies and Should Cellphones Have Warning Labels?

Breast cancer

West et al (2013) Multifocal breast cancer in young women with prolonged contact between their breasts and their cellular phones. Case Rep Med. Read Article alternatively Here

Brain tumor incidence trends

Inskip et al (2010) Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the United States. Neuro Oncology.
Zada et al (2012) Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States: 1992-2006. World Neurosurg.
Hardell & Carlberg (2015) Increasing rates of brain tumours in the Swedish National Inpatient Register & the Causes of Death Register. Int J Environ Res Public Health.
Devocht (2016) Inferring the 1985–2014 impact of mobile phone use on selected brain cancer subtypes using Bayesian structural time series and synthetic controls. Environ Int.  corrigendum (2017):
Hardell & Carlberg (2017) Mobile phones, cordless phones and rates of brain tumors in different age groups in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cancer Register during 1998-2015. PLOS One.
Philips et al (2018) Brain tumours: Rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme incidence in England 1995-2015 suggests an adverse environmental or lifestyle factor. J Environ Public Health

Also see: Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US: The Role of Cell Phone & Cordless Phone Use


Ruediger (2009) Genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Pathophysiology.
Behari (2010) Biological responses of mobile phone frequency exposure. Indian J Exp Biology.
Giuliani and Soffritti (2010). Nonthermal effects and mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living matter. ICEMS Monograph. Ramazzini Institute. 403 pp.
Juutilainen et al (2011) Review of possible modulation-dependent biological effects of radiofrequency fields. Bioelectromagnetics.
Volkow et al (2011) Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism. JAMA.
Pall (2013) EMFs act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects. J Cell Mol Med.
Calderon et al (2014) Assessment of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure from GSM mobile phones.
Dasdag & Akdag (2015) The link between radiofrequencies emitted from wireless technologies & oxidative stress. J Chem Neuroanat.
Yakymenko et al (2016) Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation. Electromagnet Biol Med.
Barnes & Greenenbaum (2016) Some effects of weak magnetic fields on biological systems: RF fields can change radical concentrations and cancer cell growth rates. IEEE Power Electronics J.
Tamrin et al (2016) Electromagnetic fields and stem cell fate: When physics meets biology. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol.
Terzi et al (2016) The role of electromagnetic fields in neurological disorders. J Chem Neuroanat.
Havas (2017) When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer? Environ Pollution.
Barnes & Kandala (2018) Effects of time delays on biological feedback systems and electromagnetic field exposures. Bioelectromagnetics.
Belpomme et al (2018) Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspective. Environ Pollution.
Hinrikus et al (2018) Understanding physical mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect. Int J Radiation Biol.
Mortazavi et al (2019) Evaluation of the validity of a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship in cancers induced by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. J Biomed Phys Eng.
Nielsen et al (2019) Towards predicting intracellular radiofrequency radiation effects. PLOS One.
Panagopoulos (2019) Comparing DNA damage induced by mobile telephony and other types of man-made electromagnetic fields. Mutation Res.
Halgamuge et al (2020) A meta-analysis of in vitro exposures to weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phones (1990–2015). Environmental Research.

Reproductive Health Effects

LaVignera et al (2011) Effects of the exposure to mobile phones on male reproduction: a review of the literature. J Andrology.
Aldad et al (2012) Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 Mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice. Science Reports.
Divan et al (2012) Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. J Epidemiol Commun Health.
Adams et al (2014) Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Reproduction.
Houston et al (2016) The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function. Reproduction.

Also see: Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality and Pregnancy & Wireless Radiation Risks

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity

See: Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity


Kelsh et al (2010) Measured radiofrequency exposure during various mobile-phone use scenarios. J Exposure Sci Environ Epidemiol.
Gandhi et al (2012) Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. Electromagnetic Biol Med.
Schmid & Kuster (2015) The discrepancy between maximum in vitro exposure levels and realistic conservative exposure levels of mobile phones operating at 900/1800 MHz. Bioelectromagnetics.
Sagar et al. (2018) Comparison of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in different everyday microenvironments in an international context. Environ Int.
Gandhi OP (2019) Microwave emissions from cell phones exceed safety limits in Europe and the US when touching the body. IEEE Access.

Blood-Brain Barrier Studies

AirPods: Are Apple’s New Wireless Earbuds Safe? (Blood-Brain Barrier Effects)

5G and Millimeter Wave Studies

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?
5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects


Huss et al (2007) Source of funding and results of studies of health effects of mobile phone use: systematic review of experimental studies. Environ Health Perspec.
Fragopoulou et al (2010) Scientific panel on electromagnetic field health risks: consensus points, recommendations, and rationales. Rev Environ Health.
Alster, N (2015) Captured agency: How the FCC is dominated by the industries it presumably regulates. Harvard University.
Consumer Reports (2015) “Does cell-phone radiation cause cancer?”
International EMF Scientist Appeal (2015)
International Appeal: Scientists call for protection from non-ionizing electromagnetic field exposure. European J Oncology. 20(3/4). 2015.
Kostoff R, Lau C (2017). Modified health effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation combined with other agents reported in the biomedical literature. In C.D. Geddes (ed.), Microwave Effects on DNA and Proteins.
Bandara P, Carpenter DO (2018). Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact. The Lancet Planetary Health.
Foerster et al (2018). A prospective cohort study of adolescents’ memory performance and individual brain dose of microwave radiation from wireless communication. Environ Health Perspect.
Hertsgaard, M, Dowie, M (2018). “How Big Wireless Made Us Think That Cell Phones Are Safe: A Special Investigation.” The Nation, March 29, 2018.
Miller et al (2019). Risks to health and well-being from radio-frequency radiation emitted by cell phones and other wireless devices. Front. Public Health