Important paper by Nicholas B Lawler et al. published in Biomed Opt Express. 2022, Apr 28;13(5):3131-3144. doi: 10.1364/BOE.458478. eCollection 2022 May 1.

Millimeter waves alter DNA secondary structures and modulate the transcriptome in human fibroblasts

Abstract. As millimetre wave (MMW) frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum are increasingly adopted in modern technologies such as mobile communications and networking, characterising the biological effects is critical in determining safe exposure levels. We study the exposure of primary human dermal fibroblasts to MMWs, finding MMWs trigger genomic and transcriptomic alterations. In particular, repeated 60 GHz, 2.6 mW cm-2, 46.8 J cm-2 d-1 MMW doses induce a unique physiological response after 2 and 4 days exposure. We show that high dose MMWs induce simultaneous non-thermal alterations to the transcriptome and DNA structural dynamics, including formation of G-quadruplex and i-motif secondary structures, but not DNA damage.